The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State ( Cambridge Studies in Law and Society) [John Torpey] on *FREE* shipping. Daniel Nordman THE INVENTION OF THE PASSPORT Surveillance, Citizenship and the State John Torpey University of California, Irvine □H CAMBRIDGE. The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State. Front Cover · John Torpey, Professor of Sociology John Torpey. Cambridge University .
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The term “foreigner” here applied principally to French citizens from outside the capital. France had begun to take the necessary steps to distinguish clearly and effectively between natives and foreigners within its borders. The invention of the passport: This innovative study combines theory and empirical data in questioning how and why states have established the exclusive right to authorize and regulate the movement of people.
The committee then recommended as an “indispensable condition” that every passport include an extract of the person’s municipal declara- tion.
Full text of “The invention of the passport : surveillance, citizenship, and the state”
In late October 1the Conven- tion banished the emigres from French territory “in perpetuity” and declared the death penalty for those who contravened the law. The stage had already been set for a backlash against free movement during the previous months. Habermas thus speaks of the “colonization of the life-world” by the “steering media” of money and power.
I am lassport grateful to Susan Silbey for inviting me to contribute this volume in the Cambridge series on Law and Society. Torpey Limited preview – The emigres of yesterday met the emigres of tomorrow on the roads to the frontiers, and the latter outnumbered the former.
Ultimately, Montmorin was absolved of having surreptitiously issued the passports under assumed names.
In response, the Legislative Assembly – a newly constituted body with entirely different membership and perspectives than its predecessor – th a decree on 9 Novemberdeclaring all French persons gath- ered outside the borders of the Kingdom to be under suspicion of conspiracy against the patrie. In particular, I seek to show that the notion that states “penetrate” societies over time fails adequately to char- acterize the nature of state torpeh, and argue instead that we would do better to regard states as “embracing” their citizenries more successfully over time.
This innovative book argues that documents such as passports, internal passports and related mechanisms have been crucial in making distinctions between citizens and non-citizens.
Despite the fact torpdy it took a harder line against footloose elements, it, too, was unable to gain mastery over the country. At least at first, the Directory held to the 7 December law concerning passports for departure from the coun- try. The Italian passport law of The spread of identification documents for foreigners in France The resurrection of passport controls in late nineteenth-century Germany The First World War and the “temporary” reimposition of passport controls “Temporary” passport controls become permanent The United States and the end of the laissez faire era in migration 5 From National to Postnational?
To paraphrase Marx, states make their own kf, “but they do not make it just as they please; they invnetion not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves, but under circumstances directly found, given, and trans- mitted” from the outside.
It is thus useful to examine the debate in some detail.
I am grate- ful to Phillipa McGuinness and Sharon Mullins at Cambridge University Press for their enthusiasm about the project, and for holding the door open just a little longer than they might have liked. Where pronounced state controls on movement operate within a state today, especially when these are to the detriment of particular “negatively privileged” status groups, we can reliably expect to find an authoritarian state or worse.
In fact, the passport laws were openly flouted and indeed mocked, as can be seen in the case of the emigres, who began a major reflux after Thermidor despite the persistence of penal legislation against them.
Surveillance, Citizenship, and the State”.
The decriminalization of travel in the North German. Comparative historical sociologyComparative religion . Passports and freedom of movement under the Convention.
Surveillance, Citizenship and the StateJohn Torpey. The persistent tinkering with these techniques indicates that states and other entities, of course have a powerful and enduring interest in identifying persons, both their own subjects and those of other countries. Greer’s estimate thus misleads because it focuses upon the freedom of the French to enter and leave their country rather than on the liberty to move within the Kingdom, which at this point remained very much a live issue – indeed, for most of the French, the primary one.
In late November, the Convention had suspended the delivery of certificates of residence, only to adopt a few days later a decree rescinding this suspension for mer- chants and their agents who found it necessary to travel “for their commercial affairs,” and authorizing the issuance of certificates and passports to them.
John Torpey : The invention of the passport. Surveillance, Citizenship and the State
On 20 Septemberthe government therefore decreed the estab- lishment of civil status I’etat civila title denoting “standing” within a constituted political order. This is because, as Mary Douglas wrote some years ago, “all margins are dangerous. Sciences sociales et histoire 30 March The clarification of the legal concept of the foreigner, whose movements were to be restricted as such, would first require much impassioned debate and bureaucratic develop- ment, and would ultimately be forged in the fires of military conflict.
At this point, at least, the term “foreigners” therefore applied as much to those who opposed the revolution, regardless of their “national” origins, as it did to persons not of French birth. In particular, with the creation of the watch committees comites de surveillance on 21 March regulation of movement and enforcement of passport regulations fell more and more into the hands of rogue, sans-culotte elements.