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In physics, a gauge theory is a type of field theory in which the Lagrangian is invariant under certain Lie groups of local transformations. The term gauge refers to. quatrième section, j’aborderai le rôle de la symétrie de jauge dans la procédure entités de la théorie) sur l’espace-temps4, l’invariance de jauge implique. “Optique Géométrique et invariance de jauge: Solutions oscillantes d’amplitude critique pour les équations de Yang-Mills.” Séminaire Équations aux dérivées.

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Gauge theories are also important in explaining gravitation in the theory of general relativity.

Since any kind of invariance under a field transformation is considered a symmetrygauge invariance is sometimes called gauge symmetry. One such jnvariance is the Aharonov—Bohm effectshown in the figure.

This is analogous to a non-inertial change of reference frame, which can produce a Coriolis effect.

Gauge theory – Wikipedia

With the advent of quantum mechanics in the s, and with successive advances in quantum field theorythe importance of gauge transformations has steadily grown. The detailed mathematical relationship between the fields E and B and the jaugr V and A is given in the article Gauge fixingalong with the precise statement of the nature of the gauge transformation.

In mathematical terms, the theory involves a fiber bundle in which the fiber at each point of the base space consists of possible coordinate bases for use when describing the values of objects at that point. The curvature form Fa Lie algebra-valued 2-form that is an intrinsic quantity, is constructed from a connection form by.

The earliest field theory having a gauge symmetry was Maxwell ‘s formulation, in —65, of electrodynamics ” A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field ” which stated that any function whose curl vanishes—and can therefore normally be written as a gradient —could be added to the jwuge potential without affecting the magnetic field.


In physicsthe mathematical description of any physical situation usually contains excess degrees of freedom ; the same physical situation is equally well described by many equivalent mathematical configurations. There are more general nonlinear representations realizationsbut these are extremely complicated.

A transformation from one such field configuration to another is called invarianfe gauge transformation ; [3] [4] the lack of change in the measurable quantities, despite the jwuge being transformed, is a property called gauge invariance.

This explained the electromagnetic field effect on the wave function of a charged quantum mechanical particle. For example, uauge was not clear whether it was the fields E and B or the potentials V and A that were the fundamental quantities; if the former, then the gauge transformations could be considered as nothing more than a mathematical trick.

University of Chicago Press: If one invariqnce that the fields were the fundamental quantities, then one would expect that the results of the experiment would be unchanged. At the same time, the richer structure of gauge theories allows simplification of some computations: For example, if an electric field was imposed on one side of the axis dw not on the other, the results of the experiment would be affected.

Gauge theory

Once this arbitrary choice the choice of gauge has been made, it becomes possible to detect it if someone later twists the cylinder. In fact, a result in general gauge theory shows that affine representations i. invqriance

Methods for quantization are covered in the article on quantization. Such a permanent interchanging of their identities is like a global gauge symmetry. Incidentally, Noether’s theorem implies that invariance under this group of transformations leads to the conservation of the currents. This term introduces interactions between the n scalar fields just as a consequence of the demand for local gauge invariance. September Learn how and when to remove this template message.


As long as this transformation is performed globally affecting the coordinate basis in the same way at every pointthe effect on values that represent the rate of change of some quantity along some path in space and time as it passes through point P is the same as the effect on values that are truly local to P.

Non-abelian gauge theories are now handled by a variety of means. These two gauge symmetries are in fact intimately related. This is another example of a gauge transformation: This new “derivative” is called a gauge covariant derivative and takes the form.

Introduction to gauge theory – Wikipedia

But now suppose that invariane electrons in the experiment are subject to electric or magnetic fields. Suppose we imagine the two invriance of the electron wave as tiny clocks, each with a single hand that sweeps around in a circle, keeping track of its own phase.

Gauge symmetries can be viewed as analogues of the principle of general covariance of general relativity in which the coordinate system can be chosen freely under arbitrary diffeomorphisms of spacetime. The Strange Theory of Light and Matter. Historically, the first example of gauge symmetry to be discovered was classical electromagnetism.